猎鹰重型 Compendium

本文将根据最新信息进行定期更新(可在本文结尾处找到最新更改列表)。您可以从菜单中的主菜单轻松访问文章“Compendiums” section.

最后更新: 2021年1月15日
(变更日志)

猎鹰重型 (Credit: 太空X)

猎鹰重型 (FH) is the most powerful member of 太空X’的猎鹰火箭家族。公众最早在2005年了解FH,比Falcon 1早了几年’s first successful launch. In 2008, 猎鹰重型’s first launch was scheduled for 2013. The inaugural launch kept being postponed and 猎鹰重型 finally launched for the first time in February 2018.

The idea behind 猎鹰重型 is simple, it’基本上是三架Falcon 9助推器组装在一起(但是,Elon Musk在SES-10新闻发布会上透露说FH’s development was far more challenging than originally expected). 猎鹰重型 is powered 通过 Merlin 1D engines and is the most powerful rocket currently in operation (it has the highest thrust and also the highest 狮子座 payload capability). In addition, FH is able to launch large payloads beyond Earth’s orbit.

After the successful 猎鹰重型 demonstration mission in February 2018, Elon Musk revealed 那the rocket cost at least half a billion dollars to develop.

跳至部分:

参量

  • 价钱 (根据任务类型和其他客户要求,实际价格可能会更高):
    • 9000万美元(获得助力器)
    • 9500万美元(仅回收了辅助助推器)
    • 1.5亿美元(消耗品)
  • 有效负载能力:
    • 狮子座
      • 63,800公斤(消耗性)
      • 30,000公斤
    • GTO
      • 26,700公斤(消耗性)
      • 10,000公斤(所有3架助推器都降落在无人机上)
      • 8,000公斤(侧面助推器降落在陆地上,中央助推器降落在无人机上)
    • 经月注射
      • 15,460公斤(消耗性)
      • 8,000公斤(所有3架助推器都降落在无人机上)
      • 7,000公斤(侧面助推器降落在地面上,中央助推器降落在无人机上)
    • 火星:16,800公斤(消耗性)
    • 冥王星:3500公斤(消耗性)
  • 高度: 70 m(包括第二阶段和整流罩)
  • 宽度: 12.2 m(每级直径:3.66 m)
  • 总质量 (加油的):1,420,788公斤
  • 总推力 (在海平面):22,819 kN
  • 推进剂: RP-1和液氧

梅林引擎

Merlin 1D Block 5(来源:SpaceX)

Merlin是一种开放式燃烧​​循环火箭发动机,使用RP-1(高度精制的煤油)和液氧运行。 太空X每年生产数百种此类发动机,因此也是世界第一’s largest manufacturer of rocket engines. Merlin has undergone many changes over the years and there have been several variations. 猎鹰重型 uses the latest version called Merlin 1D – the rocket’第一级由三个核心组成,每个核心均配备9个Merlin 1D发动机,而上一级由单个Merlin 1D-Vac发动机(为真空优化的改进型发动机)推动。

Merlin 1D在世界上所有火箭发动机中具有最高的推重比(TWR)。它的重量为470千克,最新型号在海平面上的推力为845 kN(真空发动机型号的真空推力为981 kN)。 Merlin的优点之一是它的可重新启动性(可以轻松关闭它,然后再打开它)。这使SpaceX可以在实际启动之前测试每个引擎的点火,还可以使第一阶段着陆,这需要重启几次引擎。

另一个优势是再生冷却,使Merlin易于重复使用。再生冷却的原理是,在燃烧室中燃烧之前,非常冷的燃料首先通过发动机喷嘴壁上的微小通道,从而对其进行连续冷却。您可以看到它的工作原理 金融时报的这张动画图.

提示:观看 一个简短的视频 太空X的Tom Mueller在其中解释了Merlin引擎的工作原理。

Merlin 1D于2013年首次使用,至今一直用于猎鹰火箭。与以前的Merlin 1C相比,新功能是能够将发动机推力降低至70%(后来降至56%)。这在登陆第一阶段时特别有用。后来,其他增强功能提高了性能和可靠性,并减少了制造工作量。 Merlin 1D在执行任务期间从未失败。该发动机的最新版本具有略微增加的推力和其他改进,有时被称为Merlin 1D Block 5甚至是 梅林1E.

启动配置文件和着陆选项

At launch, both 猎鹰重型 side boosters are running at full thrust, while the center core is running at low thrust. After a few minutes, the side boosters separate, while the central stage, with the upper stage 上 top, keeps going (this time at full thrust) and then separates later. Recovery of all three boosters will likely be attempted for most missions, but there are several different landing options:

Standard 猎鹰重型 mission profile

  1. 两侧助推器都降落在地面上,而中央助推器则降落在无人机上(因为它降落的距离更远,到达的速度更高)。这种方法可能是最常见的。
  2. 在向低轨道或轻载任务飞行的情况下,所有三个助推器都可以降落在陆地上。 STP-2是此类任务的一个示例。但是,SpaceX在佛罗里达州的陆地上只有两个着陆垫(LZ-1和LZ-2),因此在这种情况下,中心核心将落在无人机商店上,该无人机商店的位置距离海岸不远(几十公里)而不是通常的600–1000公里)。
  3. 对于要求更高的任务(重载或高轨道),它’辅助助推器有可能降落在海洋中的无人机上,而中心核心将被消耗。伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)表示,SpaceX之所以研发第三架无人机(称为“格拉维塔斯号”)的原因之一是可能需要在海上降落双方助推器。
  4. On extremely demanding missions where maximum performance is needed (such as interplanetary launches), 猎鹰重型 could launch in fully expendable mode. In this scenario, the rocket wouldn’装备着陆硬件,将燃烧几乎所有燃料以最大化性能,然后将所有三个助推器消耗掉并最终因撞击海洋而被破坏’s surface.

发射台

The first 猎鹰重型 launch was initially planned from launch pad SLC-4E in California, but now it seems unlikely it will ever launch from 那pad. It is unclear whether the pad was ever actually ready for 猎鹰重型 launches, but it was designed for FH. For example, the transporter/erector (T/E) is large enough to accomodate 猎鹰重型. The pad infrastructure, however, was upgraded in 2016 in order to support subcooled propellants used 通过 the new Falcon variant v1.2, but pad compatibility with 猎鹰重型 was presumably not maintained when the upgrades were made. This is supported 通过 the fact 那the latest revision of the 猎鹰用户’s Guide no longer offers 猎鹰重型 launches from California.

加利福尼亚范登堡空军基地的发射台SLC-4E(来源:SpaceX)

猎鹰重型 eventually launched for the first time from Florida’肯尼迪航天中心的LC-39A垫。该垫的首次SpaceX发射是在2017年2月进行的,但最初只能从此处发射较小的Falcon 9火箭。垫’s construction became a priority after the nearby pad SLC-40 was destroyed in September 2016 during the Amos-6 anomaly. After 太空X started using the completed pad LC-39A, additional work was still needed to make it compatible with 猎鹰重型. 太空X did this work in between Falcon 9 launches during 2017.

护垫39A的鸟瞰图(来源:Hope Geiger /空军国民警卫队)

2017年10月1日,垫坡道39A上的运输机/竖立设备的照片 出现了,显示了两个新安装的FH侧面助力器夹具。 10月底,猎鹰9号的镜头’s roll-out seen during the live KoreaSat 5A webcast showed 那the work progressed further and additional clamps were installed. The T/E modifications were probably completed in November, as the fully-assembled 猎鹰重型 was mated to it 通过 early December.

LC-39A is currently the 上ly pad from which 猎鹰重型 can launch, but the 太空X pad that’s being built in South Texas near Boca Chica Village was also originally intended to launch Falcon 9 and 猎鹰重型 rockets. However, plans have changed over the years, and 太空X has decided 那the Texas pad will be used primarily to launch the upcoming 超级重型飞船.

优于猎鹰9

猎鹰重型 has triple the thrust of the smaller Falcon 9, and thus roughly three times the payload capacity. As a result, the rocket is capable of carrying payloads directly to geostationary orbit and still recover the boosters. Falcon 9 does not have enough performance for this.

猎鹰火箭家族

猎鹰重型’更高的有效载荷容量也意味着卫星可以部署到比标准(超同步)地球静止转移轨道更高的位置。这样,客户可以节省时间和金钱,因为卫星可以更快地到达最终​​的地球静止轨道并消耗更少的燃料,然后可以将其用于维持更长的轨道,从而实际上延长了卫星的整体寿命。尽管“猎鹰9”也可以将沉重的卫星发射到超同步轨道上,’s usually 上ly possible in expendable configuration (first stage is not recovered). However, boosters being expended are a waste of resources for 太空X, and so it is better to use 猎鹰重型 for such missions because it is capable of recovering of three boosters even after launching payloads to a supersynchronous orbit.

NSSL认证

In November 2017, 太空X President and COO Gwynne Shotwell clarified the 猎鹰重型 certification process for EELV military launches (later renamed to NSSL – National Security Space Launch). Three successful missions are needed (with two successes in a row). However, 太空X was allowed to apply for the EELV contracts before completing the three launches. 猎鹰重型 won its first such contract 在2018年6月 还有一个 在2019年2月.

Ultimately, the first three launches of 猎鹰重型 provided data for the rocket’的NSSL认证。但是,该过程是’结束。在2019年9月, 太空新闻报道 那FH is now certified, but 上ly for two Phase 1A reference orbits.  That means 那SpaceX can now do certain types of launches for the military but not others, as defined 通过 specific mass and orbit combinations. Work continues to certify 猎鹰重型 for the remaining reference orbits but some of those would include the need to 开发更大的有效载荷整流罩并具有垂直整合的能力 火箭上的有效载荷。

Additionally, 太空X is working 上 certifying Falcon 9 and 猎鹰重型 for military launches 那would use flight-proven boosters.

取消的计划和功能

Falcon 9 with mini-BFR 上 top – 上e of the concepts for a reusable Falcon upper stage 那were considered. Unofficial image. (Credit: /u/purpleefilthh)

猎鹰重型 was originally supposed to use crossfeed, which is a way of distributing fuel across rocket stages during flight. This increases efficiency and hence performance and payload capacity. However, it is a challenging engineering problem and no such system has been developed yet. Eventually, 太空X abandoned the idea of crossfeed, saying 那if it’将来可能需要,公司可能会重新考虑。

For a long time, Elon Musk also considered the idea of ​​a reusable Falcon upper stage. He even said in March 2017 那SpaceX 可能尝试实验性恢复上段 during the 猎鹰重型 demonstration mission. However, 那experiment never came to pass and Musk announced at the end of 2018 那猎鹰火箭获胜’得到更多的重大升级 (这意味着没有开发可重复使用的上层级的计划)。相反,SpaceX将专注于开发完全可重用的“超级重型”星舰,无论如何它有望从理论上取代猎鹰系列火箭。

猎鹰重型 was also supposed to be capable of crewed flights. In February 2017, 太空X宣布 那猎鹰重型 would send the Crew Dragon spacecraft around the moon and back. Later, however, the company changed this plan. In the fall of 2018, 太空X宣布 那the private lunar flyby mission is called 亲爱的月亮 and 那it will be performed using BFR (now called Starship) instead of 猎鹰重型. 太空X said 那it will human-rate 猎鹰重型 for crewed launches 上ly if 超级重型飞船 development goes significantly slower than expected.

History of 猎鹰重型

The first mention of 猎鹰重型 (formerly called Falcon 9 Heavy) dates back to 2005, even before the first launch of Falcon 1. In 2011, 太空X had several Falcon 9 launches under its belt and therefore a better idea of ​​the planned 猎鹰重型. The company initially planned to launch the first 猎鹰重型 from pad SLC-4E ramp in California but 那never happened. The first launch from the East Coast (Cape Canaveral) was then planned for 2013 or 2014. The company also released a video in 2011 showing a 猎鹰重型 based 上 the now outdated Falcon 9 v1.0 variant. Another video was released in January 2015 and depicted a much updated 猎鹰重型 as we know it today, even showing all three boosters landing:

2015年3月, first signs of actual 猎鹰重型 development 出现了 上line. 太空X published (and quickly deleted) photos of the 猎鹰重型 scale model used for wind-tunnel testing:

在2016年初, 猎鹰重型 nose cone was spotted in the background of a photo from 太空X’s factory in Hawthorne. Then later, 那same nose cone was spotted being transported out of Hawthorne.

在2016年底,SpaceX在公司上发布了一张照片’s 官方Instagram showing the rocket interstage with 猎鹰重型 logo:

猎鹰重型 interstage in Hawthorne (Credit: 太空X)

在2017年春天, 猎鹰重型 boosters were spotted being transported from Hawthorne to McGregor where they were tested afterwards:

2017年5月,中央核心和其中一个侧面助推器在McGregor中进行了测试射击。另一侧助推器和上层级在9月进行了试射。 太空X从静态火中释放了视频:

2017年10月, the last remaining components arrived to LC-39A and 通过 early December, the first 猎鹰重型 was assembled in the HIF (Horizontal Integration Facility). Final tests of the fully-assembled rocket could then begin in preparation for the demonstration mission.

示范团

飞行前准备

In December 2017, 太空X released first photos of the assembled 猎鹰重型 before and after the roll-out to pad 39A where a dry dress rehearsal was conducted. In January 2018, several wet dress rehearsals took place, which culminated in a successful static fire 上 January 24. It was the first time 那all 27 Merlin engines were ignited at 上ce (before that, boosters could 上ly be test fired individually in McGregor).

发射和降落

首次发射终于在2018年2月6日进行。侧面助推器成功并几乎同时降落在LZ-1和LZ-2上,但是由于两枚火箭弹的出现,中央核心在OCISLY上的着陆失败’的发动机耗尽了发火的点火液体TEA-TEB,因此着陆燃烧所需的三台发动机中只有一台被点火。助推器在OCISLY旁边坠入水中。

侧面助推器已被重复使用,并先前在Thaicom-8和CRS-9任务中发射。它们是v1.2 Block 2变体的Falcon 9,编号为B1023和B1025(但根据非官方信息,在翻新过程中,助推器实际上已升级到Block 3)。中心核心是新的(编号B1033),它是Block3。所有未来的FH都将包含经过大大改进的Block 5版本的增强器。这次发射的侧面助推器有钛制格栅鳍,而中央核心有铝鳍。这样做的原因是由于不同的空气动力学特性(侧面助推器具有鼻锥而不是平坦的级间),因此需要更好地操纵侧面助推器。

特斯拉和Starman

埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)决定使用自己的特斯拉敞篷跑车(Tesla Roadster)作为此次测试发射的有效载荷,而不是像混凝土块那样乏味的模拟器。方向盘后面是Starman,他是SpaceX太空服的假人。这辆车在绕地球的轨道上呆了几个小时,然后成功地送入了一个超越火星的日心轨道’绕太阳公转。据埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)称,敞篷跑车将花费“a billion year” in space.

任务阿拉伯卫星6A

The second 猎鹰重型 launch occured 上 April 11, 2019. It was the first flight of the upgraded 猎鹰重型 Block 5 and also the rocket’首次运载阿拉伯卫星6A卫星进行商业发射。

任务是成功的。卫星被部署在正确的超同步对地静止转移轨道上,所有三个助推器均成功降落(首次进入中心核心)。然后,将两侧助推器重新用于STP-2任务。甚至整流罩 已在Arabsat发射过程中被回收,以后可能会重复使用.

但是,中心核心 降落一段时间后提示,由于海况恶劣。火箭受到严重损坏,奥西利号只带着火箭的底部返回港口。 伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)说 那the engines might still be reused.

任务STP-2

STP-2任务于2019年6月25日成功完成,据SpaceX称,这是该公司最具挑战性的任务’的历史。原因是有效载荷由USAF组成’必须将24颗卫星部署到LEO和MEO的三个不同轨道上。这花费了三个多小时,并且需要分别烧毁上级Merlin发动机四次。部署取得了100%的成功,SpaceX还成功地将侧面助推器软着陆到LZ-1和LZ-2上 赶上火箭’s fairing 第一次,是使用树女士(前身是史蒂文先生)配备大型渔网的船。

否则,本次完美发射的唯一缺陷是中心核心未成功安装在OCISLY上。 伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)解释 那“high entry force &发动机舱过热&中央引擎TVC失败”。 TVC代表推力矢量控制,没有它,着陆时使用的中央引擎无法操纵火箭,因此撞到了OCISLY旁边的水中。

过去和将来的发射

日期(UTC) 任务 轨道 笔记
2018年2月6日 FH演示 逃逸 示范任务。伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)’的Tesla Roadster充当有效载荷。
2019年4月11日 阿拉伯卫星6A GTO FH Block 5的首次发射。为沙特阿拉伯运送了一颗通信卫星。
2019年6月25日 STP-2 狮子座 / MEO 美国空军的任务。 24颗卫星被部署到3个不同的轨道。
2021 USSF-44 土力工程处 NSSL合同,中心核心将被使用
2021 USSF-52 GTO 第一个获得竞争性胜利的NSSL合同
2021年至2022年 ViaSat-3 土力工程处 Communications satellite 那will be launched into “几乎对地静止的轨道”
2022 Inmarsat-6 F2 GTO? 商业发射通信卫星
2022 精神 逃逸 NASA探测器向Psyché小行星发射
2023 PPE /光晕 TLI NASA的两个模块’网关空间站
2024? GLS-1 TLI 与Dragon XL进行登月口货运任务
2025? GLS-2 TLI 与Dragon XL进行登月口货运任务

(更多具体的发布日期可以在 发射清单 页。)

More 猎鹰重型 相片

猎鹰重型 影片

演示任务网络广播:

侧面助推器着陆:

猎鹰重型 上 Pad:

猎鹰重型 Going Vertical 上 Pad:

演示任务动画:

庆祝演示任务的官方视频:


变更日志:

  • 2021年1月15日–有关即将进行的Inmarsat任务的最新信息
  • 2020年9月25日–更新了即将发布的产品清单
  • 2020年4月4日–在任务列表中添加了两个带有Dragon XL的GLS任务
  • 2020年3月30日–增加了各种配置的跨月注射的有效载荷容量
  • 2020年2月29日–赛琪加入了任务清单
  • 2020年2月11日–更新了有关NSSL认证的部分,并添加了Inmarsat 6B发射(尚未确认)
  • 2019年8月23日– Ovzon-3从任务列表中删除(将于阿丽亚娜5号发射)
  • 2019年6月27日–添加了STP-2发射的信息和照片,并更新了任务清单
  • 2019年4月21日–添加了有关Arabsat中心核心事故的信息和照片
  • 2019年4月14日–添加了有关Arabsat 6A发射的一些基本信息(更多细节将在以后添加)
  • 2019年3月31日–文章首次发布

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